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An iconic storyline in Marvel Comics' The Amazing Spider-Man series, spanning issues #121-122 (June-July, 1973). As the title implies, it is infamous for killing off Spider-Man's girlfriend Gwen Stacy. It was written by Gerry Conway, and drawn by Gil Kane.
The year was 1973. For ten years, Spider-Man had been one of Marvel's most popular characters. The patterns of Peter Parker's life were pretty well established. He attended Empire State University, fought creeps like Doc Ock, the Lizard, Kraven the Hunter, Mysterio, and the Green Goblin, made money by selling pictures of himself in action to The Daily Bugle and its cantankerous publisher J. Jonah Jameson, and was deeply in love with Gwen Stacy.
For the most part, superheroics had been a game to Parker. The closest he'd personally gotten to death was nearly being pinned under a ton of machinery in Doctor Octopus' lair, and he nearly always came out on top in the end. He did have a small problem where Gwen's father a cop died while he was fighting a battle, but that was written as a Heroic Sacrifice after he was revealed to have found out Peter's secret identity in 1970. It would be his secret identity being exposed again that would set into motion another series of tragic events. The Green Goblin managed to stalk Spider-Man (whose spider-sense had been numbed) and discover that his greatest foe  was no older than 19 or 20. He successfully captured Parker and in his arrogance revealed his identity as Norman Osborn, the father of Peter's classmate (and future roommate) Harry. Taking advantage of Osborn's inability to shut up, Spidey eventually broke free of his restraints and battled the Goblin. During the fight, an accident induced Laser-Guided Amnesia in Osborn, making him forget that he'd ever been the Green Goblin. Peter thought that he'd seen the last of the Goblin, until Amnesiac Dissonance caught up with Osborn and he started remembering in short spurts that he was the Green Goblin. The first time this happened, it resulted in the also famous storyline The Goblin Returns, which challenged the Comics Code Authority's guidelines on portraying drug use.
After this little relapse, things didn't go so well for Osborn. Harry's drug use had taken its toll on his relationship with Mary Jane Watson, and she split it off with him. Devastated, he had a little relapse of his own, overdosing on LSD. Norman's business wasn't doing so hot either, and the coupled stress of his shattered home life and business life drove him back into insanity. He took up the Goblin mantle again and kidnapped Gwen Stacy, knowing that Spider-Man would surely follow. Just to make sure Spider-Man knew it was him, he left one of his pumpkin bombs sitting on Gwen's purse. Spider-Man tracked the Goblin and an unconscious Gwen down to the George Washington Bridge (although just about any bridge in New York has been used in flashbacks or other continuities). The Goblin gave Spider-Man a Sadistic Choice: surrender or Gwen died. Spider-Man and the Goblin began to fight, and in the midst of the battle, the Goblin threw Gwen off the bridge. Acting quickly, Spider-Man shot a webline to save her, only to find her dead when he brought her up.
The editors decided that the Goblin could not go unpunished for this, and so he died in the next issue, impaled by his own glider. Spider-Man's world had become considerably darker. He would be haunted by the uncertainty of what had actually killed Gwen. Had the Goblin already killed her, or had Peter Parker killed the woman he loved with his webline? This is hotly debated in the real world, as snagging Gwen's leg with a webline would result in severe whiplash and certainly snap her neck, which a 'snap' sound effect seemed to indicate.
More controversy exists around the reason the story was written. Stan Lee (who had left the book by then) claims he knew nothing about it, although other sources contradict him. Word of God seems to be that the editors thought that Gwen made Spider-Man too happy, and having him be married to her (as would have inevitably happened) would age him too much. Now where have we heard that before?
- Always Save the Girl: Inverted big time.
- Amnesiac Dissonance: The last time it happens to Norman Osborn actually. After this, he never forgets who he was.
- Characterization Marches On: This storyline marks the beginning of Mary Jane's transition from shallow party girl, to valuable support and love interest for Peter.
- Close on Title: The title doesn't appear until the last panel, in order to prevent readers from discovering too early which character would get killed off.
- Curb Stomp Battle: Spider-Man whacks the crap out of the Goblin, stopping just short of killing him.
- This is arguably the beginning of what would become a common feature of Spider-Man stories in the future: genuinely pissing Spider-Man off is probably the single worst personal decision you can make in the Marvel Universe.
- Death Is Cheap: Osborn eventually came back as the mastermind of The Clone Saga, but Gwen is a perennial example of a character who stays dead.
- Although she was cloned at one point, said clone later died.
- Distressed Damsel: Surprisingly averted. We never actually see Gwen get kidnapped (we see the Goblin hovering outside her window, but not the act), and after that she's either unconscious or dead.
- I Let Gwen Stacy Die: Obviously.
- If You Kill Him You Will Be Just Like Him: What stops Spidey from offing Osborn in the end.
- Impaled with Extreme Prejudice: Osborn's fate.
- It Got Worse: As if Spidey's life didn't suck enough now, this story's events were the direct cause of The Clone Saga, Harry becoming the next Green Goblin, contracts being put out on Spider-Man that Luke Cage and The Punisher tried to fulfill, and indirectly allowing for the Hobgoblin to exist.
- Later retcon would go on to have him be revealed to have fathered children with Gwen Stacy while she was in Europe before her death.
- Not the Fall That Kills You: Subverted.
- Purple Prose: The narration of Osborn's death.
So do the proud men die: Crucified. Not on a cross of gold, but on a stake of humble tin.
- Sadistic Choice: Partial trope namer, as the exact same scenario is where it was named.
Green Goblin: It's quite simple, web-spinner. Your presence in this world has been a source of constant agony to me. I wish you to leave it permanently. Or else...Gwen Stacy dies!
- Skewed Priorities: Spider-Man calls the Goblin out on this when he throws a hissy fit for Spider-Man wrecking his glider.
Spider-Man: Mister, are we living in the same universe? You killed my woman Goblin, and you're raging about a blasted bargain-basement toy?
- Unstoppable Rage: The Goblin's response to the Skewed Priorities example above push Spidey into one.
- Watch It Stoned: Averted hard with Harry. LSD makes him a nervous schizophrenic wreck who becomes afraid to be alone, and begins wondering whether he even exists.
- Wham! Episode: A hero never failed so spectacularly before. This storyline is considered one of the signs of the shift from the Silver Age to Bronze Age. The death of a main supporting character (excluding those killed off at the beginning), let alone the love interest, was unheard of at the time.
- although this is Gobby in the '60s we're talking about. Only foe works too